Hypergraph database backends

In the future, we expect other hypergraph database backends to be included in the library (for example, fully in-memory hypergraphs for even higher performance at relatively small sizes, or distributed hypergraphs for huge datasets, fault-tolerance, etc.). Graphbrain is an open source project, so contributions from people interested in developing such implementations are very welcome!

SQLite 3

File extensions: .db, .sqlite, .sqlite3

Pros: universal support; native to Python; concurrent access; single file storage

Cons: not space-efficient; not as fast as LevelDB

This backend comes with vamilla Graphbrain.


File extensions: .hg, .leveldb

Pros: space-efficient; fast

Cons: no concurrent access; directory structure not as convenient as single file

LevelDB is a local filesytem-based high-performance key-value store.

Anaconda on macOS

We have found cases where the plyvel library that is installed as a dependency by Graphbrain does not work in Anaconda environments. This was observed on macOS Big Sur, on MacBook Pro laptops with the M1 chip. It is unknown if it might apply in other cases.

You might get error messages such as this one:

ImportError: dlopen(/opt/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/plyvel/plyvel.cpython-38-darwin.so, 2): Symbol not found: _ZTIN7leveldb10ComparatorE
Referenced from: /opt/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/plyvel/_plyvel.cpython-38-darwin.so
Expected in: /usr/local/opt/leveldb/lib/libleveldb.1.dylib
in /opt/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/plyvel/_plyvel.cpython-38-darwin.so

The solution is to replace plyvel with one from the Anaconda repositories:

$ pip uninstall plyvel
$ conda install -c conda-forge plyvel


To install plyvel, boost.lib and leveldb.lib must be compiled first.

  • boost.lib (x64)

step 1 download and unzip the Boost library: https://www.boost.org/

step 2 make sure cl is the environment variable

step 3 open x64 Native Tools Command Prompt for VS2017. Get into the directory of the unzipped Boost

step 4 run command:

$ bootstrap.bat

b2.exe and bjam.exe will be added after this step.

step 5 open and modify project-config.jam in the current directory:

$ import option ;
$ using msvc : 14.1 : “E: \VS2017\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.1-.250117\bin\HostX64\x64\cl.exe” ;
$ option.set keep-going : false ;

Please note that you should: i) use your own VS version number (e.g. 14.1) ii) use your own directory of _cl.exe_.

step 6 (note: this step may take 1 - 3 hours) create a folder named build in the current directory, then run command:

$ b2.exe stage --toolset=msvc-14.1 address-model=64 --stagedir="E:\mylib\boost\bin1.64.0\VC14.
$ 1" threading=multi --build-type=complete --build-dir="E:\mylib\boost\boost_1_64_0\build"

Please note that you should: i) use your own directory names ii) be careful about the VS version number

  • leveldb.lib

step 1 download the source code of LevelDB for windows: https://github.com/vaskomitanov/leveldb

step 2 open Visual Studio (2017). Create a project:

  • file – new – project from existing code

  • choose the type of project: Visual C++

  • project file location: the directory of LevelDB

  • project name: LevelDB

  • project type: LIB

  • preprocessor definition: LEVELDB_PLATFORM_WINDOWS;OS_WIN; WIN32

  • include search path: E:LIBleveldb-windows;E:LIBleveldb-windowsinclude (the directory of LevelDB and its include)

  • click finish

step 3 set LevelDB.lib:

  • project – properties – configuration properties – configuration type: LIB

  • configuration properties – C/C++ - General – preprocessor – preprocessor definition: LEVELDB_PLATFORM_WINDOWS;OS_WIN; WIN32

  • linker – general – additional library directory: E:LIBboost64stagelib (use your own path)

step 4 open solution explorer, exclude the following files (tip: you can search and right click on the target files):

  • files ends with _test.cc and _bench.cc

  • port/port_android.cc

  • port/port_posix.cc

  • util/env_posix.cc

step 5 modify code:

in dbc.cc:

$ delete #include < unistd.h>

in portport.h - add the lines below before first #endif:

$ include "port/port_win.h"

step 6 note: remember to compile as release x64

  • plyvel

modify setup.py:

                libraries=['leveldb vaskomitanov-r x64',
  • Cmake

you may also need to install Cmake, please check the official guidance here: https://cgold.readthedocs.io/en/latest/first-step/installation.html#windows